Social workers often confront crises that are brought to them—a crisis experienced by a client, a family, a community, or an organization. The goal of crisis theory is to intervene to help restore equilibrium and to reduce long-term psychological and social distress. Given the nature of social workers meeting clients at the point of crisis, interventions are short-term with very concrete outcomes.
In times of adversity or crisis, clients, families, communities, or organizations frequently forget that they have strengths, both intrapsychic assets and environmental resources, to assist them through the crisis. Resiliency can be viewed as a trait, a process, or the outcome of intervention, which may help a client adapt to a crisis, trauma, or adverse event. Resiliency theory emphasizes the environmental, psychological, social, and individual factors that minimize the risk that stems from problems that arise.
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Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Turner, F. J. (Ed.). (2017). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Chapter 7: Social Work Theory and Practice for Crisis, Disaster, and Trauma (pp. 117–130)
Chapter 29: Resiliency Theory and Social Work Practice (pp. 441–451)
Smith-Osborne, A. (2007). Life span and resiliency theory: A critical review. Advances in Social Work, 8(1), 152–168. Retrieved from https://advancesinsocialwork.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/view/138
Smith-Osborne, A., & Whitehill Bolton K. (2013). Assessing resilience: A review of measures across the life course. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 10(2), 111–126. doi:10.1080/15433714.2011.597305
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Bradshaw, B. G., Richardson, G. E., & Kulkarni, K. (2007). Thriving with diabetes—An introduction to the resiliency approach for diabetes educators. Diabetes Educator, 33(4), 643–649. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721707303808
Dombo, E. A., & Ahearn, F. L. (2017). The aftermath of humanitarian crises: A model for addressing social work interventions with individuals, groups, and communities. Illness, Crisis, & Loss, 25(2), 107–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/1054137315606830
Social workers strive to make informed decisions about the interventions they implement. These decisions should be driven by what the research data say. As a result, social workers have been called to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions they implement. A common way to evaluate interventions is to use a single-subject design. This involves monitoring an outcome for an intervention implemented for one client. After a social worker works with the client to determine the outcome to be measured, the following steps to the evaluation might look like this:
In this Discussion, you use the lens of resiliency theory when reflecting on a case from your fieldwork, and then you consider how to measure the effectiveness of a possible intervention.
To prepare, read this article listed in the Learning Resources:
Respond to two colleagues:
It is common for social workers to be presented with a crisis situation brought forth by clients, families, communities, and/or organizations. The ultimate goal is to restore the client to equilibrium. The five stages of the crisis are (1) the hazardous event, (2) the vulnerable stage, (3) the precipitating factor, (4) the state of active crisis, and (5) the reintegration or crisis resolution phase.
There are times when a social worker will use more than one theory to assist in conceptualizing the problem and intervention, particularly if the theories complement each other. For example, resiliency theory can be used alongside crisis theory.
To prepare: Review and focus on the same case study that you chose in Week 2.
Submit a 1- to 2-page case write-up that addresses the following:
Be sure to:
Angelica Wiggins RE: Discussion – Week 5COLLAPSE
Reflect on your fieldwork experience and identify a case where it would have been beneficial to employ resiliency theory. Describe the case in 2 sentences.
Unfortunately, I have not completed my field experience yet but plan to do so during the Fall 2019 quarter. For this discussion, I chose the case of Tiffani Bradley to reflect on. This is the case that I identified at the top of Week 2 and have become very familiar with the client.
In the case of Tiffani Bradley, the resilience theory would be very beneficial. Tiffani is a 16-year-old female who has been a victim of prettification from the age of eight. Tiffani is a prime example of the resilience theory because she consistently copes with stress and adversity to achieve functional outcomes and beat the odds in her environment.
Describe the presenting problem in one concise sentence.
Tiffani is 16-year-old female who has overcome trauma/high stress levels in her family dynamic and environment due to her ability to adapt to negative external factors surrounding her.
Describe an intervention you would implement to promote the resiliency.
The strength-based approach would be an intervention I would implement to promote resiliency in Tiffani’s life. I would also use solution-focused therapy as it would help Tiffani to focus on what she wants to personally achieve and minimize the emphasis on past failings and problems. Tiffani and I would focus on her strengths and prior accomplishments.
Identify an instrument from the Smith-Osborne and Whitehill Bolton’s article that would be appropriate when employing a single-subject design to evaluate how effective the intervention is in increasing the client’s level of resiliency.
An instrument from the Smith-Osborne and Whitehill Bolton’s article that would be appropriate when employing a single-subject design to evaluate how effective the intervention is in increasing the client’s level of resiliency would be the “RSCA” method by (Prince-Embury, 2008). The RSCA instrument consists of 3 scales: Emotional reactivity, sense of mastery, and sense of relatedness. The sense of relatedness monitors the individual’s ability to trust others and the capacity to accept others. Emotional reactivity monitors the individual’s sensitivity level and their behavior when upset. Sense of mastery measures the individual’s adaptability, and how they perceive uncontrollable factors in life.
Explain why you selected the instrument. In other words, why would the instrument be appropriate? (Consider the age of the client and for whom the instrument was designed, how feasible it would be to administer the instrument such as cost, time to administer it, etc.).
I believe that the RSCA instrument would be appropriate being that Tiffani is 16 years old and falls into the age range for RCSA sampling. The RCSA validation sampled adolescent’s ages 9 to 18 years old. The sample measures the resilience in children and adolescents. It is also free of cost and would not cause any financial burdens on Tiffani or her support system.
Jennifer Ford RE: Discussion – Week 5 COLLAPSE
In my tenure as a librarian, I had the pleasure of meeting a young boy who had parents who did drugs in the home (CYS was already alerted and actively working on his case). I was kind to this kid, because I knew of his plight outside of the library. One day I offered him a Klondike, because my kids were there, and I had bought Klondikes for them. He smiled, and came up to me and then his face got dark, and he asked “are you serious?” I didn’t even think about his previous experiences., and I said “of course, what do you take me for?”
An intervention that might be effective would be working on family strengthening and developing a plan to have the family use talk therapy to sort out differences and to strengthen the family unit. I worked with an art therapist when my own marriage was failing, and it was wonderful to work on our individual parts of a painting, and put them all together. I think this may be a starting point for this boy’s family.
I also agree with the previous post, the RSCA method from Smith and Osborne, would have done me well in this articular case. It would have allowed me to see how he applied a sense of relatedness, emotional reactivity and sense of relatedness.
Jamiah Cruz RE: Discussion – Week 6COLLAPSE
The reference I used for my search was Foster, J. M. (2017). The Fears and Futures of Boy Victims of Sexual Abuse: An Analysis of Narratives. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 26(6), 710-730. doi:10.1080/10538712.2017.1339223. According to the text Foster, J. M. (2017). The centers for disease control and prevention in 2005 asserts that 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused before the age of 18. Mostly 50 percent of women and 28 percent men who sees counselors have history of sexual abuse. Most individual turn down help because they aren’t ready to talk about the trauma. They would always need to seek help to cope with others because of their fear. Sexual abuse clients will always have a issue coping with others and they will always see the world is unsafe. Tiffani recieved helped at the home she resigned in and she decided to try and cope with her parents and the world. I say I would use cognitive Behavior therapy because it’s a process they go by step by step to see if you can improve off the steps they are going by. She couldn’t cope with the individuals that hurt her but she ended up coping with her sister.
Angelica Wiggins RE: Discussion – Week 6COLLAPSE
Provide the reference for the study you found using APA guidelines.
Boone, M. S., Mundy, B., Morrissey Stahl, K., & Genrich, B. E. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Functional Contextualism, and Clinical Social Work. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(6), 643–656.
Briefly paraphrase, in 2 to 3 sentences, the methodological context (i.e., research method, how data was collected, and the instruments used) of the study and the findings.
This article discusses the fit between social work and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral therapy that meets all of these criteria. As of 2011, approximately two thirds of ACT studies had included mediation analyses, statistical tests that determine whether changes in measured outcomes (e.g., degree of depression, quality of life) are driven, at least in part, by the processes theorized by the treatment model (Hayes et al., 2011). This kind of analysis is important because when a treatment works, it is often difficult to determine the primary mediating.
Evaluate the findings in terms of its applicability or appropriateness for the client in your case study.
ACT ultimately offer social workers useful tools for supporting growth and change in their clients. ACT uses metaphors, mindfulness, and experiential exercises to help clients contact experientially what it is like to simply notice their internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, feelings, memories) rather than trying to change them.
Determine whether you would use or not use the therapy you selected for the client in your selected case study (consider how culturally relevant it is, how aligned it is with social work ethics, etc.) and explain why.
I would indeed use ACT in Tiffani’s case as ACT undermines the power of socially and verbally constructed ways of relating by helping clients become more present to their moment-to-moment experience (Boone et al., 2015). Through this form of therapy Tiffani’s feelings and experiences are still there, but her relationship to them are different. Her thoughts and feelings will become more like what she experienced, rather than representations of how the world is.
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